Chemical Equilibrium

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Banerjee, A.C. (1995) Teaching Chemical Equilibrium and Thermodynamics in Undergraduate General Chemistry Classes. J. Chem. Educ., 72 (10), 879-881.

Bergquist, W. ; Heikkinen, H. (1990) Student ideas regarding chemical equilibrium: What written test answers do not reveal. J. Chem. Educ., 67 (12), 1000-1003.

Bilgin, I. (2006) Promoting pre-service elementary students' understanding of chemical equilibrium through discussions in small groups. Int. J. Sci. Math. Ed., 4, 467-484.

Chang, A.; Larsen, R. (1991) Approach to Equilibrium: The Wasp and Beetle Model. J. Chem. Educ., 68 (4), 297-300.

Chapple, F.H. (1998) The Temperature Dependence of delta G and the Equilibrium Constant, Keq; Is There a Paradox? J. Chem. Educ., 75 (3), 342.

Clark, R.W.; Bonicamp, J.M. (1998) The Ksp- Solubility Conundrum. J. Chem. Educ., 75 (9), 1182-1185.

David, C. W. (1988) An Elementary Discussion of Chemical Equilibrium. J. Chem. Educ., 65 (5), 407-409.

DeLorenzo, R. (2001) From Chicken Breath to the Killer Lakes of Cameroon: Uniting Seven Interesting Phenomena with a Single Chemical Underpinning. J. Chem. Educ., 78 (2), 191-194.

Evrard, N.; Huynen, A-M.; de Bueger-Vander Borght, C. (1998) Communication of Scientific knowledge in class - from verbalization to the concept of chemical equilibrium. Int. J. Sci. Educ., 20 (8), 883-900.

Fainzilberg, V. E.; Karp, S. (1994) Chemical Equilibrium in the General Chemistry Course. J. Chem. Educ., 60 (6), 769-770.

Feldman, M. R.; Tarver, M. L. (1983) Fritz Haber. J. Chem. Educ., 60 (6), 463-464.

Furio, C.; Calatayud, M.L.; Barcenas, S.L.; Padilla, O.M. (2000) Functional Fixedness and Functional Reduction as Common Sense Reasonings in Chemical Equilibrium and in Geometry and Polarity of Molecules. Sci. Ed., 84, 545-565.

Gold, J.; Gold, V. (1985) Le Chatelier's Principle and the laws of van't Hoff. Education in Chemistry, May, 82-85.

de Heer, J. (1957) The Principle of Le Chatelier and Braun. J. Chem. Educ., 34 (8), 375-380.

Hawkes, S.J. (1998) What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products? J. Chem. Educ., 75 (9), 1179-1180.

Helferrich, F. G. (1985) Le Chatelier - Right or Wrong? Optimizing Chemical Reacition Equilibria. J. Chem. Educ., 62 (4), 305-308.

Howald, R.A. (1999) The Fizz Keeper, a Case Study in Chemical Education, Equilibrium, and Kinetics. J. Chem. Educ., 76 (2), 208-209.

Huddle, B.P. (1998) "Conceptual Questions" on Le Chatelier's Principle. J. Chem. Educ., 75 (9), 1175.

Huddle, P. A.; White, M. W.; Rogers, F. (1999) Simulations for Teaching Chemical Equilibrium. J. Chem. Educ., 77 (7), 920-926.

Kaper, W.H.; Goedhart, M. J. (2002) ‘Forms of energy’, an intermediary language on the road to thermodynamics? Part I. Int. J. Sci. Educ., 24 (1), 81-95.

Kaper, W.H.; Goedhart, M. J. (2002) ‘Forms of energy’, an intermediary language on the road to thermodynamics? Part II. Int. J. Sci. Educ., 24 (2), 119-137.

Katz, L. (1961) A Systemic Way to Avoid Le Chatelier's Principle in Chemical Reactions. J. Chem. Educ., 38 (7), 375-378.

LIndauer, M.W. (1962) The Evolution of the Concept of Chemical Equilibrium from 1775-1923. J. Chem. Educ., 39 (8), 384-390.

Lund, E.W. (1965) Guldberg and Waage and the Law of Mass Action. J. Chem. Educ., 42 (10), 548-550.

Orvis, J. N.; Orvis, J. A. (2005) Throwing Paper Wads in the Chemistry Classroom. J. College Sci. Teach., Nov/Dec, 23-25.

Paiva, J.C.M. ; Gil, V.M.S. (2000) The Complexity of Teaching and Learning Chemical Equilibrium (Letters). J. Chem. Educ., 77 (12), 1560.

Paivra, J. C.M; Goncalves, J.; Fonseca, S. (2008) Does the Addition of Inert Gases at Constant Volume and Temperature Affect Chemical Equilibrium? J. Chem. Educ., 85 (8), 1133.

Pedrosa, M. A.; Dias, M. H. (2000) Chemistry textbook appraoches to chemical equilibrium and student alternative conceptions, Chemistry Education: Research and Practice, 1 (2), 227-236.

Piquette, J. S.; Heikkinen. H. W. (2005) Strategies Reported Used by Instructors to Address Student Alternate Conceptions in Chemical Equilibrium. J. Res. Sci. Teach., 42 (10), 1112-1134.

Quilez, J. (2004) Changes in concentration and in partial pressure in chemical equilibria: students' and teachers' misunderstandings. Chemistry Education: Research and Practice, 5 (3), 281-300.

Quilez, J. (2004) A historical approach to the development of chemical equilibrium through the evolution of the affinity concept: some educational suggestions. Chemistry Education: Research and Practice, 5 (1), 69-87.

Quilez-Pardo, J.; Solaz-Portoles, J.J. (1995) Students' and Teachers' Misapplication of Le Chatelier's Principle: Implications for the Teaching of Chemical Equilibrium. J. Res. Sci. Teach., 32 (9), 939-957.

Raviolo, A. (2001) Assessing Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Solubility Equilibrium. J. Chem Educ., 78 (5), 629-631.

Smith, K. J.; Metz, P. A. (1996). Evaluating Student Understanding of Solution Chemistry through Microscopic Representations. J. Chem. Educ., 73 (3), 233-235.

Solaz, J.J.; Quilez, J. (2001) Changes of extent of reaction in open chemical equilibria. Chemistry Education: Research and Practice, 2 (3), 303-312.

Thomas, P. L.; Schwenz, R. W. (1998) College Physical Chemistry Students' Conceptions of Equilibrium and Fundamental Thermodynamics. J. Res. Sci. Teach., 35 (10), 1151-1160.

Thompson, H. B. (1987) Good Numerical Technique in Chemistry: The Quadratic Equation. J. Chem Educ., 64 (12), 1009-1010.

Thomsen, V.B.E. (2000) Le Chatelier's Principle in the Sciences. J. Chem Educ., 77 (2), 173-176.

Treptow, R.S. (1980) Le Chatelier's Principle: A reexamination and method of graphic illustration. J. Chem Educ., 57 (6), 417-420.

Treptow, R.S. (1984) Le Chatelier's Principle Applied to the Temperature Dependence of Solubility. J. Chem Educ., 61 (6), 499-502.

Tyson, L.; Treagust, D.F.; Bucat, R.B. (1999) The Complexity of Teaching and Learning Chemical Equilibrium. J. Chem. Educ., 76, (4), 554-558.

Uribe, D. (1998) Solving Chemical Equilibria. J. Chem. Educ., 75, (9), 1177-1179.

Van Driel, J. H.; de Vos, W. (1999) Introducing Dynamic Equilibrium as an Explanatory Model. J. Chem. Educ., 76, (4), 559-561.

Voska, K. W. ; Heikkinen, H.W. (2000) Identification and Analysis of Students Conceptions Used to Solve Chemical Equilibrium Problems. J. Res. Sci. Teach., 37 (2), 160-176.

Wilson, A.H. (1998) Equilibrium: A Teaching/Learning Activity. J. Chem. Educ., 75 (9), 1176-1177.

Xianmin, Z. (1989) The Free Energy Prediction of Reaction Direction and the Principle of Le Chatelier. J. Chem. Educ., 66 (5), 401-402.

Yang, Z. (1993) The Effect of Pressure on the Equilibrium of the N204-NO2 System, and its Classroom Demonstration. J. Chem. Educ., 70 (2), 94-95.