AAA and CAS Style

Reference System for Anthropology
This citation guide was created by OC Anthropology faculty in conjunction with librarians. The examples and rules outlined on this page follow the Canadian Anthropology Society's citation style guide, and may vary from the American Anthropological Association's official style guide, which adheres fully to the current edition of the Chicago Manual of Style (Author-Date). 
   
In-text Citation (Generic Example) Reference List Citation (Generic Example)
(Author(s) year:page)
Surname, first name.
year   Title. Source Title. Publication specific details.



General Guidelines 
When citing sources, regardless of the resource you are citing, you will likely need an author, date, title, source, and specific format information (such as a volume number, page numbers, a URL, publisher, etc.). The elements of the citation will depend on what you are citing (book, journal article, report, etc.) and the format (print, online).  
  1.  The Basic Rule: (Author year:page)
    • Left parenthesis, author’s surname, space, year, colon, page, right parenthesis:
      • (Chomsky 1957:12)
  2. Citing one work by one author
    • Author’s name given in your own text, omit the author’s name in the citation:
      • Chomsky’s earliest notable publication (1957:12), he provokes…
    • Author’s name not given in your own text:
      • An early publication on the theory (Chomsky 1957:12)...
  3. Citing two authors, give both their surnames joined with “and"
    • (Maltz and Borker 1982:203)...
  4. Citing more than two authors, give the first surname plus “et al.”
    • (Flinn et al. 1998:86).
    • NB. On the reference page, all names are written in full
  5. Citing an entire source, rather than a portion, omit the page number
    • The first serious work in syntax (Chomsky 1957) sent linguistic anthropology into...
  6. Citing several pages, give the start and end page numbers
    • Chomsky’s attack on Markov state models (1957:7-24) begs the question...
  7. Citing several works by the same author, years are separated by commas
    • (Lévi-Strauss 1968, 1987).
  8. Citing several works by different authors, separate works of each author with a semicolon
    • (Chomsky 1957, 1971; Hymes 1964, 1971; Kramer et al. 2007).
  9. Citing several works by one author from the same year, distinguish consistently by adding a letter to the year to indicate the alphabetical order of the titles.
    • (Lévi-Strauss 1988a, 1988b).
  10. Citing an article in an edited volume, list author of article
    • (Ackerman 1995:78).
  11. Citing a secondary source:
    • Citing a secondary source is discouraged. If the original source is not available, the original author and date are used in the in text citation.  The original author and publication information appear first in the reference list entry. 
    • In  Huston’s 1982 study (as cited in Cole and Chaikin 1990)...
    • Fieldwork (Houston, 1982, as cited in Cole and Chaikin 1990) has shown...
  12. Direct quotations and paraphrasing
    • When citing direct quotations or paraphrasing, include the page number of the quote or paraphrased information.
    • "Crests are shown or utilized in different ways” (Sapir 2002:45).
    • When crests are used, each owner has a different way of showing them (Sapir 2002:45)
  13. Personal communications (letters, phone calls, interviews, e-mail messages, etc.)
    • Do not include personal communications in the reference list.  Cite them in text only:
    • Rick Goulden (personal communication, December 16, 2007)
Star Examples & Sample Reference List 
 In-Text Citations
When you use another person's idea or work, either by paraphrasing or directly quoting, or by using photos, charts, or figures, you must cite that source.  If you do not cite the original source you are claiming the information as your own. Failure to cite information that is not your own is called plagiarism, a serious academic offence.

Every quotation must be cited. For example, “Forest apes are such good moisture conservers that they rarely need to visit predator-haunted water holes. They get enough water from the fruit and vegetation they eat, and from the rain that falls on leaves” (Morgan 1982:45).

If a direct quote spans four or more lines of text, the entire quote should appear in block quote format. A block quote should be indented and single spaced.

Every fact and statistic must be cited. For example, With estimates for the number of languages in the world ranging from 3000 to 10,000 (Crystal 1987:284), it is far from clear that…