APA Style Guide

Reference System for Psychology, Business, & Health
In-text Citation (Generic Example) Reference List Citation (Generic Example)
(Author(s), date) Surname, first initial. (date). Title. Source Title. Publication                                   specific details.

Have you seen the online APA Citation tutorial?

OC Library APA Style Guide APA Guide to Electronic References
  • Short guide to APA citation
  • Common examples & basic citation rules
  • Follows 2009 APA Publication Manual, 6th ed., 2nd printing
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  • Guide to citing electronic resources in APA. 
  • Available for personal use, not to be distributed.
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Check out the APA Citation guide specifically for business sources.
APA Manual Image Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.

You should still consult the print version of the style manual in your campus library's Reference Collection for additional information:

BF 76.7 .P83 2009

The style manual from the American Psychological Association (APA manual) uses an author-date citation format. When citing sources in APA, regardless of the resource you are citing, you will likely need an author, date, title, source, and specific format information (such as a volume number, page numbers, a URL, publisher, etc.). The elements of the citation will depend on what you are citing (book, journal article, report, etc.) and the format (print, online).

Please consult the APA Manual in your campus library Reference Collection for additional information. For further assistance, visit a Librarian at the Reference Desk at your campus library.

Other Online Sources
Online APA Tutorials from the Library

Cite It Right! (Basic)

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Style Guides by Subject Area



Statistics Canada Products*

For those using the online version of the Chicago manual of style, and who are taking geography courses, please refer to the Author-Date TAB in the Quick Guide

For those using the online version of the Chicago manual of style, and who are taking humanities courses such as History, please refer to the Notes and Bibliography TAB in the Quick Guide

For those using the online version of the Chicago manual of style, and who are taking sociology courses, please refer to the Author-Date TAB in the Quick Guide


APA Citation Style
Okanagan College Library

The Okanagan College Psychology and Business Administration Departments require the use of American Psychological Association (APA) style for citing references in student papers. APA style is also used in some courses in Arts, Science and Health. It is important to remain consistent within the paper and to use the style recommended by your college professor or instructor.
The examples in this guide cover frequently used citation forms only. For more detailed information refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), (BF 76.7 .P83 2009) and to the APA Style website at www.apastyle.org.
General Rules:
  • Double-space your paper, including the reference list.
  • Format reference list entries with a hanging indent (.5 inch or 1.27 cm). See example on page 6 of this guide.
  • Arrange reference list entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author or by title if there is no author.
  • Use only the initial(s) of the author’s given name, not the full name.
  • If the reference list includes two or more entries by the same author(s), list them in chronological order (oldest first).
  • Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in the article, report and book title and subtitle. Capitalize proper names. Capitalize all significant words of a journal title.
  • Italicize journal titles and volume numbers. Do not italicize issue numbers. Italicize book and report titles.
  • References cited in text must appear in the reference list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule are personal communications and secondary sources, which are cited in text only and not included in the reference list (See examples 7 & 10 on page 5).
  • Any republished tables or figures (including photographs and illustrations) must be clearly marked as reprinted or adapted, and the original source must be provided both in the text and in a footnote to the table or figure.
  • A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique string of numbers and letters applied to content. DOIs are typically on the first page of a journal article or are included in a database’s article information. 
  • If you are unable to identify a specific example, follow an example that is most like your source.
Examples of Reference List Entries and In-Text Citations:

The following examples of reference list entries are single-spaced to conserve space. The reference list should be double-spaced, as in the sample reference list on page 6 of the PDF or print guide.

  Reference List Citations In Text

Journal Article
1 author With DOI (Example on p. 198 of manual, #1)

Manouselis, N. (2008). Deploying and evaluating multiattribute product recommendation in e-markets. International Journal of Management & Decision Making, 9, 43-61. doi:10.1504/IJMDM.2008.016041

(Manouselis, 2008)
Journal Article
2 authors, print version, paginated by issue (See p. 199, #3)

Noonan, J. R., & Johnson, R. K. (2002). The misuse of the diagnosis of bipolar disorder in the forensic context. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 20(3), 5-19.

(Noonan & Johnson, 2002)
Journal Article
3-5 authors, print Retrieved from database
No DOI (See p. 199, #3)

Davis, J. M., Lee, L. S., & Yi, M. Y. (2009). Time-user preference and technology acceptance: Measure development of computer polychronicity. American Journal of Business, 24, 23-31. Retrieved from http://www.bsu.edu /mcobwin/majb/

First Citation: (Davis, Lee, & Yi, 2009)
Subsequent Citations: (Davis et al., 2009) 

Journal Article
6 or 7 authors with DOI (Example on p. 198 of manual, #1)

Cummings, E.,  Schermerhorn, A., Merrilees, C., Goeke-Morey, M.,  Shirlow, P., & Cairns, E. (2010). Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social–ecological model including single-and two-parent families. Developmental Psychology, 46, 827-841. doi: 10.1037/a0019668

(Cummings et al., 2010)
Journal Article
8 or more authors with DOI (See p. 198, #2)

Lavoie, M. P., Lam, R. W., Bouchard, G., Sasseville, A., Charron, M.-C., Gagné, A.-M., … Hébert, M. (2009). Evidence of a biological effect of light therapy on the retina of patients with seasonal affective disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 66, 253-258. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.11.020

(Lavoie et al., 2009)
Journal Article
Online, no DOI (See p. 199, #3)

Crystal, J. D., & Foote, A. L. (2009). Metacognition in animals. Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews, 4, 1-16. Retrieved from http://psyc.queensu.ca/ccbr

(Crystal & Foote, 2009)
Magazine Article
(See p. 200, #7)

Padgett, T., & Grillo, I. (2008, August 25). Cocaine capital. Time, 172(8), 28-30.

(Padgett & Grillo, 2008)
Magazine Article
Online, (See p. 200, #8)

Hutson, B. (2009, August). A unique consumer market. Black Enterprise, 40(1), 52. Retrieved from http://www .blackenterprise.com

(Hutson, 2009)
Newspaper Article
No author, discontinuous pages (See p. 200, #10)

Scientists say music manipulates shoppers. (2000, September 14). The Ottawa Citizen, pp. A1, A20.

(“Scientists say,” 2000)
Newspaper Article Online (See p. 200, #11)

Taylor, P. (2009, October 22). Study finds recession can be good for your health. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com

(Taylor, 2009)
(See p. 203, #18)

Heschl, A. (2001). The intelligent genome: On the origin of the human mind by mutation and selection. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

(Heschl, 2001)
Group author
Author as publisher
Edition (See p. 203, #18; p. 203, section 7.02)

American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2009)
Subsequent citations:  (APA, 2009)

Edited Book
(See p. 202, section 7.02)

Lenzenweger, M. F., & Hooley, J. M. (Eds.). (2002). Principles of experimental psychopathology: Essays in honor of Brendan A. Maher. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

(Lenzenweger & Hooley, 2002)
Article or Chapter in Edited Book
(See p. 204, #25)

Rasmusson, A. M., & Friedman, M. J. (2002). Gender issues in the neurobiology of PTSD. In R. Kimerling, P. Ouimette, & J. Wolfe (Eds.), Gender and PTSD (pp. 43-75). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

(Rasmusson & Friedman, 2002)
Electronic Version of Print Book
Retrieved from database, no DOI (See p. 203, #19)

Doh, J. P., & Stumpf, S. A. (2005). Handbook on responsible leadership and governance in global business [NetLibrary version]. Retrieved from http://www.e-elgar.co.uk

(Doh & Stumpf, 2005)
Electronic Version of Print Book
Retrieved from database, with DOI (See p. 203, #19

Doh, J. P., & Stumpf, S. A. (2005). Handbook on responsible leadership and governance in global business [NetLibrary version]. doi:10.123456789

(Doh & Stumpf, 2005)
Encyclopedia Article
Online (See p. 205, #29)

Shors, T. J., & Horvath, B. (2001). Stress, neural basis of. In International encyclopedia of the social and behavioural sciences. doi: 10.1016/B0-08-043076-7/03534-8

(Shors & Horvath, 2001)
Dictionary Definition
Online; no date (See p. 205, #30)

Materialism. (n.d.). In Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved from http://dictionary.oed.com

(Materialism, n.d.)
Data Table
From E-Stat

Statistics Canada. (2006a). Average hours per week of television viewing, by selected age groups, annual. (Table 502-0002). Retrieved from http://estat.statcan.gc.ca

(Statistics Canada, 2006a)
Lecture Notes
PowerPoint, from online course system (See p. 213, #66; p. 212, #61)

Rempel, K. (2007). Chapter ten: Motivating and rewarding employees. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://mycourses.okanagan.bc.ca

(Rempel, 2007)
Article or Chapter in Course Pack
Reprinted from another source (See p. 204, #26)

Gordon, B. (2005). Kate Bush's subversive shoes. In A. Mackie (Ed.), OC course pack: WMST 215: Women and popular culture (pp. 85-98). Kelowna, BC: Okanagan College Bookstore. (Reprinted from Women and Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture, 9, 37-50).

(Gordon, 2005)
Revised Statutes of BC (See p. 220, #10)

Family Relations Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 128.

(Family Relations Act, 1996)
Case Law
Canada Supreme Court Reports (See p. 217, #1)

R. v. Latimer (2000). [2001] 1 S.C.R. 3.

(R. v. Latimer, 2000)
Technical or Research Report
From database, no DOI (See p. 205, section 7.03)

Datamonitor. (2009). Research in Motion Limited: Company profile. Retrieved from http://wwwdatamonitor.com

(Datamonitor, 2009)
Report retrieved online, author same as publisher
(See p. 205, section 7.03, #31)

Statistics Canada. (2010). Labour force information (Catalogue No. 71-001-X). Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/71-001-x/71-001-x2010006-eng.pdf

(Statistics Canada, 2010)
Report retrieved online, author different than publisher
(See p. 205, section 7.03; p. 206, #33)

Marqui, S., Butler, M., Joseph, R., & Nay, K. (2000). Diabetes in British Columbia synthesis report. Retrieved from British Columbia Ministry of Healthy Living and Sport website: http://www.hls.gov.bc.ca/publications/

First Citation: (Marqui, Butler, Joseph, & Nay, 2000)
Subsequent citations: (Marqui et al., 2000)
Print report, author same as publisher
(See p. 205, section 7.03)

Statistics Canada. (1992). Ageing and independence (Catalogue No. 89-548-XPE). Ottawa, ON: Author.

(Statistics Canada, 1992)
DVD or Video
(See p. 210, #49)

DiCaprio, L. (Producer), & Peterson, L. C. (Writer/Director). (2008). The 11th hour [DVD]. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros. Entertainment.

(DiCaprio, 2008)

Online Video
(See p. 215, #77)

Patel, A. (2008, January 22). Music and the mind [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube/com/watch?v=ZgKFeuzGEns

(Patel, 2008)
Blog Post
(See p. 215, #76)

tara. (2007, November 27). Pullman books pulled [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://bclaifc.wordpress.com/2007/11/27/

(tara, 2007)
Web page
No author, no date
Sometimes also known as 'unpublished work' (See p. 212, #61)

The intelligence of dogs. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.petrix.com/dogint/

(The intelligence of dogs, n.d.)
Web page
Corporate Author
Sometimes also known as 'unpublished work' (See p. 212, #61)

Ducks Unlimited Canada. (2013). What do wetlands do? Retrieved from http://www.ducks.ca/learn-about-wetlands/what-do-wetlands-do/

(Ducks Unlimited Canada, 2013)


Last Updated: November 25, 2015
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